State of Gujarat vs Arcelor Mittal Nippon Steel India Limited

State of Gujarat vs Arcelor Mittal Nippon Steel India Limited - 

REPORTABLE
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CIVIL APPEAL NOS. 7710-7714 OF 2021
State of Gujarat …Appellant(s)
Versus
Arcelor Mittal Nippon Steel India Limited …Respondent(s)
J U D G M E N T
M.R. SHAH, J.
1. Feeling aggrieved and dissatisfied with the impugned common
judgment and order passed by the High Court of Gujarat dated
06.05.2016 passed in Tax Appeal Nos. 136 of 2016 to 140 of 2016 by
which the High Court has dismissed the said appeals preferred by the
State and has upheld the common order dated 29.01.2015 passed by
the Gujarat Value Added Tax Tribunal, Ahmedabad (hereinafter referred
to as the “Tribunal”) in Second Appeal Nos.420 to 423 of 2013 by which
the Tribunal held that the respondent is entitled to the exemption from
payment of amount of sales tax as per the original Entry No.255(2) vide
F.D.’s Notification dated 05.03.1992, which was issued under Section
49(2) of the Gujarat Sales Tax Act, 1969 (hereinafter referred to as “Act,
1969”), the State of Gujarat has preferred the present appeals.
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2. That the respondent herein – assessee -dealer (earlier known as
Essar Steel Ltd.) is engaged in the activity of manufacture and sale of
Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) and Hot Rolled Coil (HRC) at its two units
located at Hazira in Surat, Gujarat. The respondent holds registration
certificate under the Gujarat Sales Tax Act, 1969 and also under the
Central Sales Tax Act, 1956. The respondent made eligible investment
in Unit No.1 pursuant to Resolution dated 07.05.1986 issued by the
Industries, Mines and Energy Department of the Government of Gujarat.
Therefore, the respondent was certified as entitled to avail incentives
during the eligible period from 01.08.1990 to 31.07.2004 up to the upper
monetary limit of Rs.237.59 crores.
2.1 The Government of Gujarat vide Resolution dated 26.07.1991
announced a scheme known as "The Scheme for Special Incentives to
Prestigious Units 1990-95 (modified)" for attracting investments in core
sector industries. Under the said scheme, a prestigious unit was eligible
for incentives up to 90% of the fixed capital investment. That pursuant to
the said Scheme, the respondent – Essar Steel Ltd. (hereinafter referred
to as “ESL”) invested approximately Rs.5000 crores for manufacture of
HRC. That the said exemption was provided as per Entry 255 of the
notification issued by the Government of Gujarat under Section 49(2) of
the Act, 1969. That the Unit No.2 of the ESL was granted Sales Tax
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exemption in terms of Entry No.255(2) of the Notification dated
05.03.1992 issued under Section 49(2) of the Act, 1969 for the period
from 22.02.1993 to 21.02.2007 up to a maximum monetary limit of Rs.
2050 crores.
2.2 At this stage, it is required to be noted that the said exemption as
per Entry No.255(2) vide Notification dated 05.03.1992 was subject to
fulfilling certain conditions provided in the said original Entry No.255(2),
which shall be dealt with hereinafter below.
2.3 That the exemption granted to Unit No.2 of the respondent was an
exemption from payment of purchase tax on raw materials for (i)
Naphtha; and (ii) Natural Gas. The applicable purchase tax at the
relevant time on Naphtha was @16% on the taxable value and for
Natural Gas, it was @20% on taxable value. At this stage, it is also
required to be noted that this exemption had been made available to
steel manufacturing units and the units/entities engaged in generating
electricity were specifically excluded from this exemption by placing
them in the list of industries “Not Eligible” for this incentive.
2.4 As per the original Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992, the
condition No.6 required the eligible units to actually use the goods
purchased within the State of Gujarat as raw materials, processing
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materials or consumable stores in the manufacture of goods for sale
within the State of Gujarat or outside the State of Gujarat or as packing
materials in packing of the goods so manufactured.
2.5 That thereafter vide Government Notification dated 14.11.2000,
Entry No.255(2) came to be amended w.e.f. 14.11.2000 whereby it was
provided that the goods were to be actually used by the eligible units as
raw materials, processing materials or consumable stores in its industrial
units for which it has obtained the eligibility certificate. That thereafter
Entry No.255(2) came to be further amended vide Notification dated
16.01.2002, which provided that the eligible units, who claim exemption
from purchase tax on purchase of the goods even if the goods are used
as raw materials, processing materials or consumable stores in its
industrial units for which it has obtained the eligibility certificate in the
manufacturing of goods for dispatch to its another unit or division
situated within the State of Gujarat or outside the State of Gujarat for
use in the manufacture of other goods for sale by such other unit.
2.6 At this stage, it is required to be noted that under all the aforesaid
three notifications, one of the main requirements was that the eligible
unit furnishes to the selling dealer a certificate in Form No. 26 and
obtained from the registering authority, declaring inter alia that the goods
shall be used by it as raw materials, processing materials or consumable
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stores in its industrial unit for which it has obtained the eligibility
certificate, for the manufacture of goods in its industrial unit as per the
conditions provided under the three notifications.
2.7 On commissioning of the Unit No.2, the Natural Gas and Naphtha
purchased by the respondent – ESL, against declarations in Form No.26
were sold to Essar Power Limited (another company) (hereinafter
referred to as “EPL”) and the EPL utilized the Natural Gas and Naphtha
purchased from ESL for the purpose of generating/manufacturing
electricity, which came to be sold to the ESL by the EPL. It is the case
on behalf of the respondent – ESL that the said electricity generated by
EPL was used by it for the purpose of manufacturing HRC in its
industrial unit.
2.8 The Officers of the Sales Tax conducted a surprise visit at the
premises of the respondent – ESL in the month of July, 2001. A notice
was issued by the Sales Tax Officer calling for certain information
including details of branch transfers, deemed exports, transfer of finished
goods etc. The Sales Tax Department thereafter raised a dispute inter
alia regarding breach of declaration given in Form No.26 while
purchasing Naphtha/Natural Gas having been committed by the
respondent – ESL on the ground that the goods so purchased were
transferred to EPL for generation of electricity, which was then used in
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Unit No.2 for the manufacture of HRC. A notice was issued on
30.06.2002 by the Sales Tax Officer calling upon the ESL to give
clarification in respect of the purported breach of conditions of
exemptions, including the transfer of Naphtha/Natural Gas to EPL for
generation of electricity. That the Assessing Officer passed the
Assessment Orders in respect of Unit No.2 for Assessment Years 1995-
1996 to 1997-1998 and 2000-2001 holding inter alia that no tax was due
and payable by the respondent – ESL on account of any purported
breach of the conditions of the exemption admissible under Entry 255(2).
2.9 Subsequently, a notice dated 30.05.2005 came to be issued by the
Deputy Commissioner of Sales Tax for initiating levy of purchase tax of
Rs.480.99 crores and for levying penalty for the period 1995-1996 to
2005-2006 on the ground that the respondent – ESL has contravened
the provisions of the Act, more particularly, Entry No.255 and availed the
exemption wrongly. The respondent - ESL filed a writ petition before the
High Court challenging the notice issued by the Deputy Commissioner.
By order dated 28.03.2006, the High Court restrained the departmental
authorities from implementing or enforcing the assessment orders
subject to the condition that in respect of Unit No.2, the respondent –
ESL should deposit 50% of the tax dues within the time stipulated in the
order. The assessment orders by the Deputy Commissioner of Sales
Tax came to be challenged by way of appeals before the Joint
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Commissioner. The Joint Commissioner – the first Appellate Authority
vide order dated 30.04.2013 imposed purchase tax under Section 50 of
the Act for the years 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. However, the first
Appellate Authority accepted in the first appeal that till the amendment
took place in Entry No.255 on 14.11.2000, even if the purchased goods
were used for manufacture at any place in the State of Gujarat, there
was no breach of the conditions stipulated in Form No.26 and for the
said assessment years, the purchase tax together with interest and
penalty imposed came to be set aside. Thus, the Joint
Commissioner/first Appellate Authority confirmed the levy of purchase
tax in respect of the purchase of goods till 14.11.2000.
2.10 Being aggrieved against the order passed by the Joint
Commissioner dated 30.04.2013, both, the respondent -dealer – ESL
and the State Government preferred the appeals before the Tribunal.
That by order dated 29.01.2015, the Tribunal allowed the second
appeals preferred by the respondent- ESL holding that the respondent –
ESL is not liable to pay any tax, interest or penalty on the disputed
transactions and dismissed the cross objections of the State.
2.11 Feeling aggrieved and dissatisfied with the orders passed by the
Tribunal allowing the second appeals preferred by the respondent –
dealer - assessee and dismissing the cross objection preferred by the
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State and holding that the respondent – ESL is not liable to pay any tax,
interest or penalty on the disputed transactions, the State preferred the
present appeals before the High Court being Tax Appeal Nos. 136 of
2016 to 140 of 2016. By impugned common judgment and order, the
High Court has dismissed the said appeals mainly on the ground of
promissory estoppel and also observing that the respondent – ESL has
not violated any of the conditions provided under the original Entry
No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992.
2.12 Feeling aggrieved and dissatisfied with the impugned common
judgment and order passed by the High Court, the State has preferred
the present appeals.
3. Shri Maninder Singh, learned Senior Advocate appearing on behalf
of the appellant – State of Gujarat has vehemently submitted that the
impugned common judgment and order passed by the High Court is
patently erroneous and unsustainable.
3.1 It is vehemently submitted by Shri Maninder Singh, learned senior
counsel appearing on behalf of the State that in the present case, the
Notification dated 05.03.1992 can be said to be a parent notification and
all other subsequent Notifications dated 14.11.2000 and 16.01.2002
were either clarificatory in nature and/or expanding the scope of
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exemption. It is submitted that in any case, subsequent Notifications
dated 14.11.2000 and 16.01.2002 amending the original Entry No.255(2)
cannot be said to be taking away any rights, which were conferred under
the parent Notification dated 05.03.1992. It is submitted that therefore
there is no question of the promissory estoppel as applied by the High
Court and the Tribunal.
3.2 It is submitted by Shri Singh, learned Senior Advocate appearing
for the State that as per the original Notification dated 05.03.1992 and as
per the original Entry No. 255(2) and the statutory Form No.26, it is
abundantly clear that the parent Notification dated 05.03.1992 extends
the exemption only to ‘the eligible unit’ for utilizing the raw materials for
manufacture of goods in that unit itself. It is submitted that the wordings
used in the notification are clear and unambiguous that the exemption
shall become available only if the said eligible unit utilizes the raw
materials for manufacture of goods in the very same ‘eligible unit’. It is
submitted that therefore the raw materials – Naphtha and Natural Gas
were required to be used by the ‘eligible unit – Essar Steel Ltd.’ in the
very same steel unit and for manufacture of the steel only.
3.3 It is submitted that if the interpretation made by the High Court and
the Tribunal is accepted, in that case, even when the eligible unit does
not itself utilizes the raw materials, it may, after availing the exemption,
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simply transmit the raw materials to any other unit or entity, even the
said entities are ‘not eligible’ to the exemption and such entities though
are ‘not eligible’ would then get the benefit of exemption. It is submitted
that that could not be the object and purpose of granting exemption to
the ‘eligible units’ only.
3.4 It is submitted that while introducing the incentive scheme, the
Department issued the list of industries of ‘eligible units’ and ‘non eligible
units’ for any exemption from sale/purchase tax on procurement of raw
materials. It is submitted that in the present case the power generating
companies were specifically put in the ‘non eligible units’ category. It is
submitted that in the present case despite being fully aware of the clear
and unambiguous terms and conditions of the notifications wherein the
power producing companies were specifically made ‘ineligible’ for
availing the exemptions and though ESL was required to use the raw
materials - Naphtha and Natural Gas in their own unit, after availing the
exemption from payment of purchase tax, the ESL did not use the said
raw materials in its unit but sold the said raw materials to another
company – EPL, and EPL used the said raw materials – Naphtha and
Natural Gas for generating the electricity, which came to be
subsequently sold to the ESL. It is submitted that, thus, through such
circuitous method, the ESL passed on the benefit of exemption to EPL,
which otherwise the EPL was not eligible and/or entitled to.
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3.5 It is submitted that, thus, the interpretation advanced by the
assessee – ESL accepted by the High Court and the Tribunal would
completely defeat the purpose of exemption notifications and would be
giving premium to such dishonest assessee/dealer, who after availing
the exemption would sell the raw materials to another industry/entity,
who as such are not entitled to and/or eligible for such an exemption. It
is submitted that if the interpretation advanced by the assessee is
accepted, in that case, it would permit industries, which are eligible for
exemption to simply purchase the raw materials; not use them for any
manufacturing in their own units, and then simply transmit them for use
and manufacture by other units, even though such units are not eligible
for exemption under the notification/policy.
3.6 It is further submitted by Shri Maninder Singh, learned Senior
Advocate appearing on behalf of the State that in the present case, the
wordings used in the parent exemption notification and Entry No. 255(2)
dated 05.03.1992 are very much clear and unambiguous. It specifically
provides the conditions for availing the exemption and the eligible units
have to fulfill all the conditions stipulated in the parent Entry No. 255(2)
dated 05.03.1992.
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3.7 It is submitted that as per the law laid down by this Court in catena
of decisions, the provisions of an exemption notification are to be
construed strictly. It is submitted that even in the case of any perceived
ambiguity, the provision has to be construed in favour of the Revenue.
Reliance is placed on the decision of the Constitution Bench of this
Court in the case of Commissioner of Customs (Import), Mumbai Vs.
Dilip Kumar and Company and Others, (2018) 9 SCC 1 (para 66) as
well as another decision of this Court in the case of Union of India and
Anr. Etc. Etc. Vs. V.V.F. Limited and Another, Etc. Etc., (2020) SCC
Online SC 378 (paras 53-55).
3.8 It is further submitted by Shri Maninder Singh, learned Senior
Advocate appearing on behalf of the State that what is weighed with
High Court that levy of the purchase tax is hit by the principle of
promissory estoppel by observing that by the subsequent Notifications
dated 14.11.2000 and 16.01.2002, the State could not have taken the
rights which are available under the parent Notification dated
05.03.1992.
3.9 It is submitted that as such the subsequent Notification dated
14.11.2000 can be said to be clarificatory in nature and therefore,
conditions provided in the parent Entry No. 255(2) dated 05.03.1992
cannot be said to have been affected by subsequent notifications. It is
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submitted that as such by the subsequent Notification dated 14.11.2000,
the conditions in the original Entry No. 255(2) dated 05.03.1992 have
been explicitly made clear and as such there is no basic modification of
the conditions imposed in the parent Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992.
It is submitted that both the Notifications dated 05.03.1992 and
14.11.2000 provided the basic condition that the eligible unit shall have
to furnish to the selling dealer a certificate in Form No.26 that the raw
materials purchased shall be used as input in its industrial unit only. It is
therefore submitted that as such the subsequent Notification dated
14.11.2000 by no stretch of imagination can be said to be modifying the
basic conditions of availing the exemption provided in the parent Entry
No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992.
3.10 It is submitted that as such the clarificatory notification dated
14.11.2000 had made it abundantly clear and beyond any pale of doubt
that any such exemption on purchase of raw materials, shall be available
only to the unit when it is consuming the raw materials for manufacture
of goods in the very same unit. It is submitted that it is a settled position
of law that any such amendment being only clarificatory in nature,
applies to all entities uniformly and from the date of original notification
granting the exemption itself. Reliance is placed on the decision of this
Court in the cases of Union of India and Anr. Etc. Etc. Vs. V.V.F.
Limited and Another, Etc. Etc. (supra) and Bengaluru Development
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Authority Vs. Sudhakar Hegde and Ors., (2020) 15 SCC 63 (paras 32
to 35). It is submitted that therefore the view taken by the High Court in
the impugned judgment that the Notification dated 14.11.2000 would
apply only to such units, which get established after 14.11.2000 is
unsustainable and deserves to be reversed by this Court.
3.11 It is further submitted that even the further amended Entry No.
255(2) dated 16.01.2002 can be said to be expanding the scope of
eligibility for availing the exemption. It is submitted that the subsequent
Entry No. 255(2) dated 16.01.2002 cannot be said to be taking away
something what was provided in the parent Entry No. 255(2) dated
05.03.1992. it is submitted that therefore the High Court has erred in
applying the principle of promissory estoppel to hold that by subsequent
notifications the benefit of exemption under Entry No.255(2) dated
05.03.1992 cannot be taken away.
3.12 It is further submitted by Shri Maninder Singh, learned Senior
Advocate appearing on behalf of the State that even the High Court has
erred in observing that denying the benefit of exemption under 1992
notification would result in denying the respondent – ESL facility of using
the electricity generated by EPL. It is submitted that the said finding of
the High Court is patently erroneous and unsustainable. It is submitted
that as per the settled proposition of law, any tax exemption granted
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under a statutory provision by the Government is a concession, which
does not create any legally enforceable right against the Government
and the Government is always empowered to vary or withdraw the said
exemption and that the principle of promissory estoppel shall have no
applicability in this behalf. Heavy reliance is placed on the decision of
this Court in the case of Union of India and Anr. Etc. Etc. Vs. V.V.F.
Limited and Another, Etc. Etc. (supra) (paras 40 to 45) and another
decision of this Court in the case of Kothari Industrial Corporation
Limited Vs. Tamil Nadu Electricity Board and Anr., (2016) 4 SCC 134
(paras 10 to 14). It is further submitted that the aforesaid findings that to
deny the exemption to the respondent – ESL under the parent Entry No.
255(2) dated 05.03.1992 would be denying the respondent – ESL the
facility of using the electricity generated by EPL is absolutely erroneous
and is unsustainable. It is submitted that the arrangement between the
respondent –assessee – ESL and EPL as such has no bearing on the
liability of the respondent – assessee to fulfill its tax obligation. It is
submitted that even otherwise in the present case, the raw materials –
Naphtha and Natural Gas purchased by the eligible unit – ESL though
was required to be used by Essar Steel in its own units, the ESL sold the
same to the EPL and EPL used the said raw materials for generation of
electricity, which came to be sold to the ESL under the power purchase
agreement. It is submitted that as submitted hereinabove, the electricity
generation companies were as such put in the ‘not eligible’ list and,
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therefore, as such the EPL was not eligible for exemption under parent
Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992 and, thus, through the circuitous
methodology or modus operandi, the EPL got the benefit of exemption
though ‘not eligible’.
3.13 In the alternatively, it is submitted by Shri Maninder Singh, learned
Senior Advocate appearing on behalf of the State that even assuming
that the subsequent amended Entry No. 255(2) issued vide Notifications
dated 14.11.2000 and 16.01.2002 are not to be made applicable, which
according to the High Court was hit by principle of promissory estoppel,
in that case also, the respondent – assessee – ESL was required to
satisfy all the conditions, which are provided in the parent Entry
No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992, which the ESL failed to fulfill/satisfy.
3.14 It is further submitted that in the field of taxation, every assessment
year is an independent year and merely because in the earlier
assessment years, some benefit, though was not available, was wrongly
given, the same can be corrected in the subsequent assessment years
and the tax is to be permitted to be levied as per the law. It is submitted
that in the present case, it can be said that though right from the very
beginning, the ESL did not comply with the requisite conditions provided
in the parent Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992, still they got the
exemption benefit for the period prior to 2000 erroneously. It is
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submitted that that does not take away the right of the State to levy the
tax, which otherwise is permissible under the law and which is levied in
accordance with law.
3.15 It is further submitted that in the present case, considering the
modus operandi adopted by the ESL and the EPL and despite being fully
aware of the clear and unambiguous terms of the exemption notification
and despite the power producing companies were specifically made
‘ineligible’ for availing the exemption and despite the fact that as per the
conditions provided in the parent Entry, the raw materials – Naphtha and
Natural Gas were required to be used by the assessee – ESL in its own
unit, the raw materials came to be sold to an ‘ineligible’ entity – EPL and
the ‘ineligible unit’ indirectly/directly got the benefit of exemption though
not entitled to and/or eligible and used the said raw materials in their
own unit for generation of electricity, the respondent – assessee is liable
to pay the penalty in terms of Section 45(5). It is submitted that
therefore the orders passed by the Joint Commissioner setting aside the
penalty confirmed by the Tribunal and the High Court also deserve to be
quashed and set aside.
3.16 Making above submissions and relying upon the above decisions,
it is prayed to allow the present appeals.

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4. Present appeals are vehemently opposed by Shri Ritin Rai,
learned Senior Advocate appearing on behalf of the respondent –
assessee.
4.1 It is submitted that the respondent was previously named as Essar
Steel Ltd., which was then changed to Essar Steel India Limited (ESIL).
It is submitted that Essar Steel India Limited was admitted into
insolvency under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 ("IBC") on
02.08.2017 and the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process has been
concluded in the approval of a Resolution Plan for ESIL submitted by
Arcelor Mittal India Private Limited, which has been upheld by this Court
vide its judgment and order in Committee of Creditors of Essar Steel
India Limited Vs. Satish Kumar Gupta & Ors., (2020) 8 SCC 531). It is
submitted that pursuant to the same, the 100% shareholding of the
respondent- Essar Steel India Limited now vests with the Arcelor Mittal
India Private Limited. It is submitted that even subsequently, the name of
ESIL has been changed to Arcelor Mittal Nippon Steel India Limited.
4.2 It is submitted by Shri Rai, learned Senior Advocate appearing on
behalf of the respondent that in the present case there are concurrent
findings in favour of the original writ petitioner - respondent herein by
both, the Tribunal as well as the High Court, whereby it is held that the
Essar Steel Ltd. is eligible for exemption under the parent Entry
No.255(2) vide F.D.’s Notification dated 05.03.1992. It is submitted that
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there are concurrent findings by the Tribunal as well as the High Court
that the subsequent amended Entry No.255(2) issued vide Government
Notifications dated 14.11.2000 and 16.01.2002 are not applicable to the
respondent and accordingly the question of imposition of penalty would
not arise. It is submitted that even otherwise in absence of any mala
fides proved on the part of the respondent, there shall not be any levy of
penalty.
4.3 It is submitted that the respondent made eligible investment in its
first unit (Unit No. 1) pursuant to the Resolution dated 07.05.1986 issued
by the Industries, Mines and Energy Department of the Government of
Gujarat, and, therefore, was certified as entitled to avail incentives during
the eligible period from 01.08.1990 to 31.07.2004 up to upper monetary
limit of Rs.237.59 crores. It is submitted that, thus, the investment made
in Unit No. 1, started manufacturing HBI for which sales tax exemption
incentives were admissible under Entry 118 of the notification issued by
the Government of Gujarat under Section 49(2) of the Gujarat Sales Tax
Act, 1969.
4.4 It is submitted that on 26.07.1991, the State of Gujarat by way of a
resolution announced a Scheme known as "The Scheme for Special
Incentives to Prestigious Units, 1990-95 (Modified)" for attracting
investment in core sector industries. Pursuant to the aforesaid scheme,
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the respondent undertook investment of approximately Rs.5,000 crores
for the manufacture of HRC in its second unit (Unit No. 2) and it was
entitled to incentives during the eligible period from 22.02.1993 to
21.02.2007 up to the monetary limit of Rs. 2050 crores. It is submitted
that for Unit No. 2 as an eligible unit, the respondent was entitled to
exemption under Entry 255 of the Notification issued by the Government
of Gujarat under Section 49(2) of the Act, 1969.
4.5 It is further submitted that the respondent, in accordance with the
eligibility certificate and the exemption granted as aforesaid, availed
exemption from payment of purchase tax and sales-tax. It is submitted
that as such the respondent had always intended to install a captive
power plant up to 200 MW, but due to the requirement of the appellantState, a separate power plant was commissioned by Essar Power
Limited, a group company of erstwhile Essar Steel India Limited. It is
submitted that on commissioning of Unit No. 2, Natural Gas and
Naphtha purchased by the respondent – Essar Steel Ltd. against
declarations in Form No.26 were converted into electricity through Essar
Power Limited and utilized as an input for the purpose of manufacturing
HRC in the industrial unit of the respondent – ESL. It is submitted that
this was done by nature of a job-work arrangement and after complying
with all the necessary statutory formalities from 1994-95.
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4.6 It is submitted that the respondent was/is duly eligible under the
parent Entry No.255(2)/parent Notification dated 05.03.1992 to seek
exemption from payment of the purchase tax. It is submitted that even
the Commissioner of Sales Tax in its earlier order dated 16.8.2002 and
thereafter by the Assessing Officer in the assessment orders for the
Assessment Years 1995-1996 to 1997-1998 and 2000-2001 also
allowed and/or permitted the respondent-Essar Steel Ltd. to avail the
exemption under parent Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992. It is
submitted that in the present case, even for the subsequent Assessment
Years also the Tribunal as well as the High Court have also held that the
respondent- Essar Steel Ltd. was/is entitled to the exemption from
payment of purchase tax as per parent Entry No.255(2) dated
05.03.1992.
4.7 It is submitted that as such and even as observed and held by the
High Court, the respondent – ESL met with the conditions prescribed
under original parent Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992 and so at the
relevant time, it was granted the benefit of the Scheme. It is submitted
that as such the respondent – ESL was granted the exemption under
parent Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992 for the Assessment Years prior
to 14.11.2000.
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4.8 It is submitted that as such the respondent – ESL fulfilled/complied
with all the eligibility criteria/conditions required to avail the exemption
under the first/ parent Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992. It is submitted
that eligibility criteria to avail the exemption under the first/parent
notification was that the goods so purchased must be used in the unit
and anywhere within the State of Gujarat. It is submitted that the
conditions mentioned in the first/parent notification does not restrict the
use of goods in the eligible unit, but on the contrary, it provides for use
anywhere within the State of Gujarat. It is submitted that even as per
the condition No.6, the eligible unit was permitted to actually use the
goods purchased within the State of Gujarat as raw materials.
4.9 It is therefore submitted that when the goods were transferred to
Essar Power Limited, which is situated within the State of Gujarat for
conversion to electricity, on job-work basis and the power so generated
was used in the manufacturing of goods by the respondent –Essar Steel,
the conditions set out in the first/parent notification stood fully satisfied.
It is submitted that the Scheme under the first/parent notification never
envisaged or provided for use of goods in the same form in which they
were purchased. It is submitted that in the present case, Naphtha and
Natural Gas purchased, were used in the form of power in Unit No. 2
and, therefore, there was no breach of declarations given in Form No.26
for purchase of these goods.
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4.10 It is submitted that as per the settled law, while deciding whether
an entity is entitled to incentives, a strict interpretation of the provisions
should be made. However, after accepting that an entity is entitled to the
incentives, when determining any questions arising qua the scope of the
incentives, a liberal approach should be adopted. Reliance is placed on
the decision of this Court in the case of Assistant Commissioner (CT)
LTU and Anr. Vs. Amara Raja Batteries Limited, (2009) 8 SCC 209.
4.11 It is submitted that admittedly, the respondent's Unit No.2 was
eligible to get the exemption prior to the second notification. The
appellant - State did not raise any objection, nor did they levy any tax
liability prior to the second notification. It is submitted that rather vide
letter dated 16.08.2002 issued by the Commissioner of Sales Tax, the
appellant – State confirmed that there has been no breach by the
respondent. It is submitted that therefore, once the Unit No.2 was found
to be eligible under the parent notification, unless it changed its modus
operandi, it ought to have been given the exemption under the
first/parent notification.
4.12 It is further submitted that it was never the case on behalf of the
State that the respondent was in breach of the first/parent notification. It
merely alleged that the conditions as substituted under second
23
notification have been violated. It is submitted that therefore it is
imperative to assess if the second and third notifications were at all
applicable to the respondent – Essar Steel Ltd.
4.13 It is submitted that in any event the first/parent notification also
stated that “if the eligible unit fulfills the conditions specified hereunder
and further conditions as may be laid down from time to time”. It is
submitted that while the appellant State may further add to the
conditions provided under the first/parent notification, such further
additional condition could not be in effect to alter/amend the original
condition, i.e., the goods are to be used within the State of Gujarat.
4.14 It is submitted that by the second notification, the original eligibility
condition was amended and the requirement of use within the State of
Gujarat was changed to within the industrial unit for which the eligibility
certificate was obtained. It is submitted that this change in the original
condition was not permitted since the first/parent notification only
stipulated imposition of additional conditions and did not envisage an
amendment of the original condition.
4.15 It is further submitted that the second notification would be
applicable only for the industries that were setup after 14.11.2000. It is
submitted that the first notification was issued pursuant to the incentive
24
Scheme. It is submitted that in terms of the said Scheme, the
respondent was entitled to incentives during the eligible period from
22.02.1993 to 21.02.2007 up to the monetary limit of Rs. 2050 crores if
the conditions prevalent at the time of grant of the incentives were met.
4.16 It is submitted that a conjoint reading of the Scheme along with the
first notification would indicate that the State invited industries to invest
in its State by offering incentives, which once granted would be valid for
a fixed period i.e., till 21.02.2007 in case of the respondent, subject to
the eligibility conditions being met. It is submitted that the first notification
only stipulated imposition of additional conditions which had to be
complied with by the eligible entities.
4.17 It is further submitted that the third notification by which the parent
Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992 came to be amended, further
provided that eligible unit could claim exemption from purchase tax on
purchases of goods even if the goods are used as raw materials,
packing materials, consumable stores in its industrial unit for which it had
obtained the eligibility certificate for the manufacture of goods for
dispatch to its another unit or division situated within the State of Gujarat
for use in the manufacture of another goods for sale by such another
unit or division or to such another unit or division situated outside the
25
State for use in the manufacture of other goods for sale by such other
unit.
4.18 It is submitted that the Scheme and the first notification as initially
enacted permitted the use of Natural Gas and Naphtha for generation of
electricity outside the unit when the electricity was used in the eligible
unit as was accepted in the assessment orders for the preceding years.
Similarly, the amendments made vide third notification permit the use of
purchased goods in the manufacture of goods in the unit, for transfer to
other unit as well, within or even outside the State of Gujarat for use in
the manufacture of other goods. It is submitted that, thus, pursuant to
the amendment, use of the goods even in other unit within or outside the
State of Gujarat has been permissible.
4.19 It is submitted that therefore when the notification initially enacted
on 05.03.1992 and amended vide third notification w.e.f. 16.01.2002
permitted the use of goods outside the unit, it cannot be said that only
for a short intervening period between 14.11.2000 to 15.01.2002, the
Government had different intentions to restrict the use entirely in the
eligible unit only and that the conditions under the Scheme which
granted incentives for a tenure of 14 years would be changed on yearly
basis.
26
4.20 It is submitted that the scheme never envisaged or provided for
use of goods in the same form in which they were purchased, and
Naphtha and Natural Gas purchased by the respondent were used in the
form of power in Unit No. 2 and, therefore, there was no breach of
declarations given in Form No. 26 for purchase of these goods.
4.21 It is further submitted that even otherwise any amendment made to
the original eligibility condition, would be prospective in nature and
applicable only to fresh industrial units/entities which would become
eligible after 14.11.2000. The amended notification would not be
applicable on industries that were setup pursuant to, and eligible under
the first notification and whose rights had crystallised for 14 years under
the first notification.
4.22 It is submitted that as such the respondent – Essar Steel has not
committed any breach of declarations given in Form No. 26. Merely
because Natural Gas and Naphtha were used for generation of
electricity through EPL, which was ultimately used in the eligible unit, the
respondent – ESL cannot be said to have breached the given conditions.
4.23 It is submitted that even assuming that the second and the third
notifications were applicable to the respondent – ESL, the amended
condition does not require "direct" use of purchased goods in the unit
27
and therefore even when Natural Gas/Naphtha after conversion into
electricity is used in the unit, the condition is satisfied. It is submitted that
there are concurrent findings of fact both, by the High Court and the
Tribunal that there is no diversion of the fuel purchased by the
respondent- ESL at a concessional rate, and the same was given to EPL
only for a limited purpose for conversion to electricity and was thereafter
used by the respondent – Essar Steel in its manufacturing process.
4.24 It is further submitted by Shri Rai, learned Senior Advocate
appearing on behalf of the respondent – ESL that even otherwise the
demand of the purchase tax was barred by the Rule of promissory
estoppel and legitimate expectation as observed and held by the
Tribunal as well as by the Hon’ble High Court.
4.25 It is submitted that the respondent invested a sum of Rs.5000
crores for the manufacture of HRC in its Unit No. 2 by relying upon the
incentives provided by the appellant-State. The said incentive provided
in the Scheme and the first notification imposes a condition that the
goods purchased by the eligible entity would be used by it within the
State of Gujarat as raw materials, processing materials or consumable
stores in the manufacture of goods to be sold by the eligible entity. It is
submitted that therefore thereafter the State is estopped from amending
the conditions required to be met for obtaining the incentives, since the
28
respondent acted upon the assurance of the State that as long as it met
the conditions, it would be eligible for receiving exemptions for a fixed
amount of time as contemplated under the Scheme.
4.26 It is submitted that based on the assurance of the State, the
respondent had changed its position irretrievably by making huge
investments in Unit No. 2 and by entering into various agreements
including the one with Essar Power Limited for supply of electricity. It is
submitted that therefore the Hon’ble High Court and the Tribunal were
correct in invoking the principle of promissory estoppel as a rule of
evidence to recognize the crystallised rights of the respondent.
4.27 It is further submitted that even otherwise in any case the
imposition of penalty by the State upon the respondent is illegal and
without any basis in law. It is submitted that (a) the respondent has not
breached the conditions as stipulated in the first notification; (b) the
second and the third notifications are not applicable to the respondent
and; (c) even assuming that the second and third notifications are
applicable to the respondent, the conditions therein have not been
breached by the respondent, the question of imposition of penalty would
not arise.
4.28 It is further submitted that even otherwise, the State has
mechanically imposed the penalty, at the maximum rate of 150%,
29
without any application of mind or adjudication. It is submitted that
therefore, the imposition of penalty without appreciating the factual
circumstances surrounding the dispute is arbitrary, unjust, and illegal,
and therefore the Tribunal as well as the Hon'ble High Court has rightly
set aside the imposition of penalty.
4.29 It is further submitted that as held by this Court in several
judgments the imposition of penalty is the result of a quasi-criminal
adjudication. Reliance is placed upon the decision of this Court in
Hindustan Steel Ltd. Vs. State of Orissa, (1969) 2 SCC 627 and Excel
Crop Care Limited Vs. Competition Commission of India and Anr.,
(2017) 8 SCC 47.
4.30 It is submitted that in the facts of the present case the respondent
had been under a genuine bona fide belief that it was eligible to claim
exemption under the first notification based on the declaration made in
Form No. 26 and that the amended notifications would not govern the
respondent since the incentives had been assured under the Scheme for
a fixed period of time and such belief of the incentive was also upheld by
the letter dated 16.08.2002 issued by the Commissioner of Sales Tax,
which confirmed that there has been no breach by the respondent and
that the State has not made out a case of mala fide intention or willful
30
and deliberate contravention of the statutory provisions by the
respondent, there is no justification at all for levy of the penalty.
4.31 Making above submissions, it prayed to dismiss the present
appeal.
5. Heard the learned counsel appearing for the respective parties at
length.
6. The questions which are posed for consideration of this Court in
the present appeals are:
(i) Whether the respondent -dealer-assessee – Essar Steel Ltd.
(erstwhile) was/is entitled to the exemption from payment of
the purchase tax as per the original Entry No.255(2) vide
F.D.’s notification dated 05.03.1992?
(ii) Whether subsequent amended Entry No.255(2) issued vide
Notifications dated 14.11.2000 and 16.01.2002 in any way
alters or amends the basic requirements/conditions
stipulated as per the first notification dated 05.03.1992?
(iii) Whether the subsequent amended Entry vide Government
Notifications dated 14.11.2000 and 16.01.2002 in any way
takes away the right of the respondent to avail the exemption
under the first/parent Entry No.255(2) issued vide Notification
dated 05.03.1992?
31
(iv) Whether there was any breach of the declaration filed by the
respondent as per Form No.26?
(v) Whether in the facts and circumstances of the case, the
demand of the purchase tax on and after 14.11.2000 was hit
by the principle of promissory estoppel?
7. While answering the aforesaid questions, the original Entry
No.255(2) vide Notification dated 05.03.1992 and the subsequent
amended Entry No.255(2) amended by Notifications dated 14.11.2000
and 16.01.2002 and the conditions/eligibility criteria mentioned in the
said notifications are required to be referred to, which read as under:-
1. Original Entry No.255 (2) vide F.D's Notification dated
05.03.1992.
Entry
No.
Class of Sales of
Purchases
Conditions
255
(2)
Sale or raw
materials,
processing
materials,
consumable
stores or packing
materials by a
registered dealer
to an eligible unit.
(1)If the eligible unit furnishes to
the selling dealer a certificate
in Form 26 appended hereto
declaring inter alia that the
goods are required for use by
him within the State of Gujarat
as raw materials, processing
materials or consumable
stores in the manufacture of
goods for sale within the State
of Gujarat or as packing
materials in packing of the
goods so manufactured.
(2)If the eligible unit fulfils the
conditions specified hereunder
and further conditions as may
32
be laid down from time to time.
Conditions:-
6. The eligible unit shall actually use the goods
purchased within the State of Gujarat as raw materials,
processing materials or consumable stores in the
manufacture of goods for sale within the State of
Gujarat or outside the State of Gujarat or as packing
materials in the packing of the goods so manufactured.
2. Amendments in Entry No.255(2) vide Government
Notification dated 14.11.2000
Entry
No.
Class of Sales of
Purchases
Conditions
255
(2)
Sale or raw
materials,
processing
materials,
consumable
stores or packing
materials by a
registered dealer
to an eligible unit.
(1) If the eligible unit furnishes to
the selling dealer a certificate
in Form 26 appended hereto
and obtained from the
registering authority,
declaring inter alia that the
goods shall be used by it as
raw materials, processing
materials or consumable
stores in its industrial unit for
which it has obtained the
eligibility certificate in the
manufacture of goods for
sale within the State of
Gujarat or outside the State
of Gujarat or as packing
materials in the packing of
goods so manufactured.
Conditions:
6. The eligible unit shall actually use the goods
purchased as raw materials, processing materials or
consumable stores in its industrial unit for which it has
obtained the eligibility certificate in the manufacture of
goods for sale within the State of Gujarat or outside the
State of Gujarat, or as packing materials in the packing
of goods so manufactured.
33
(c) In Form 26, for the words "within the State of Gujarat"
the words "in the industrial unit for which the eligibility
certificate has been obtained" have been substituted.
3. Amendment in Entry No.255(2) vide Government
Notification dated 16.01.2002.
Entry
No.
Class of Sales of
Purchases
Conditions
255
(2)
Sale or raw
materials,
processing
materials,
consumable
stores or packing
materials by a
registered dealer
to an eligible unit.
(1)Insertion of condition (IA) after
condition (I) or
(IA) If the eligible unit furnishes to
the selling dealer a certificate
in Form 26 appended hereto
and obtained from the
registering authority, declaring
inter alia that the goods shall
be used by it as raw materials,
processing materials or
consumable stores in its
industrial unit for which it has
obtained the eligibility
certificate, in the manufacture
of goods for dispatch to its
another unit or division
situated within the State for
use in the manufacture of
another goods for sale by such
another unit or division or to its
another unit or division
situated outside the State for
use in the manufacture of
other goods.
(b) Insertion of condition 6(A) after condition 6
(6A) The eligible unit shall actually use the goods so
purchased as raw material, processing material or
consumable stores in its industrial unit for which it has
obtained the eligibility certificate, in the manufacture of
goods, which are dispatched to its another unit or
34
division situated within the State for use in the
manufacture of other goods for sale by such another
unit or division or to its another unit or division situated
outside the State for use in the manufacture of other
goods.
8. Form No.26 applicable in 1992 reads as under:-
“FORM-26 [Entry 255]
Certificate by an eligible unit purchasing, goods for use in
manufacturing goods.
[See Entry at serial No.255 inserted by Government
Notification, Finance Department No. (GHN-8) GST-1092/
(S.49)-(249)-TH dated the 5th March, 1992 issued under
section 49(2) of the Gujarat Sales Tax Act,1969]
I, ________ of M/s. Address ____________
certify the I/the said ______ as/is a registered dealer
holding a certificate of registration No._____ dated ______
and also holding a certificate No. ________ dated _______
granted by the Commissioner of Sales Tax, Gujarat State
under Government Notification No. (GHN-8) GST-1092
(S.49)-(249) TH, dated the 5th March, 1992 and that the
goods being raw materials, processing materials mentioned
in bills/cash memo/invoice No. ______ dated ___________
of M/s ___________ will be used by me/the said _______
in the manufacture of goods for sale or being the packing
materials mentioned in bill/cash memo/invoice No._______
dated _________ of M/s. _________ will be used in the
packing of the goods so manufactured, namely
_____________
I further certify that the aforesaid certificate was in force on
the date of the aforesaid purchase of goods.
Place: Signature :
Date: Status :”
35
9. Form-26 (Entry No.255) as applicable in years 2000/2002 after the
amended Entry No.255(2) vide Notifications dated 14.11.2000 and
16.01.2002 reads as under:-
“FORM-26 [Entry 255]
Certificate by an eligible unit purchasing, goods for use in
manufacturing goods.
[See Entry at serial No.255 inserted by Government
Notification, Finance Department No. (GHN-8) GST-1092/
(S.49)-(249)-TH dated the 5th March, 1992 issued under
section 49(2) of the Gujarat Sales Tax Act,1969]
I, ________ of M/s. Address ____________
certify the I/the said ______ as/is a registered dealer
holding a certificate of registration No._____ dated ______
and also holding a certificate No. ________ dated _______
granted by the Commissioner of Sales Tax, Gujarat State
under Government Notification No. (GHN-8) GST-1092
(S.49)-(249) TH, dated the 5th March, 1992 and that the
goods being raw materials, processing materials mentioned
in bills/cash memo/invoice No. ______ dated ___________
of M/s ___________ will be used by me/the said ______
(1) [in the industrial unit for which the eligibility certificate
has been obtained] in the manufacture of goods for sale
(2) [within the State or outside the State of Gujarat or for
dispatch either to its another unit or division situated within
the State for use in the manufacture of other goods for sale
by such another unit or division, or to its another unit or
division situated outside the State for use in the
manufacture of other goods] or being the packing materials
mentioned in bill/cash memo/invoice No._______ dated
_________ of M/s. _________ will be used in the packing
of the goods so manufactured, namely _____________
I further certify that the aforesaid certificate was in force on
the date of the aforesaid purchase of goods.
Place: Signature :
Date: Status :
(1) These words were substituted for "within the state of
Gujarat" by s-49 (332) dt. 14-11-2000.
36
(2) These words were inserted by s-49 (357) dt. 16-01-
2002.”
10. Thus, as per the original Entry No.255(2) issued by Notification
dated 05.03.1992 while claiming the exemption from payment of
purchase tax of raw materials, processing materials or consumable
stores, the following conditions were required to be fulfilled/complied
with:-
(i) That the eligible unit was required to furnish to the selling dealer
a certificate in Form No.26 declaring inter alia that the goods
are required for use by him/it within the State of Gujarat as raw
materials, processing materials or consumable stores in the
manufacture of goods for sale within the State of Gujarat or as
packing materials in packing of goods so manufactured; and
(ii) That the eligible unit shall actually use the goods purchased
within the State of Gujarat as raw materials, processing
materials or consumable stores in the manufacture of goods for
sale within the State of Gujarat or outside the State of Gujarat
as packing materials for the packing of the goods so
manufactured.
10.1 Therefore, only in a case where the raw materials, processing
materials or consumable stores are used by the eligible unit and the
eligible unit actually uses the goods purchased within the State of
37
Gujarat as raw materials, processing materials or consumable stores in
the manufacture of goods, there shall be exemption from payment of
purchase tax/sales tax to the extent provided in the said Entry.
11. In the present case, it is an admitted position that after furnishing a
declaration in Form No.26, the goods - raw materials, processing
materials or consumable stores so purchased were to be used by ESL,
but the respondent - ESL after purchase of raw materials – Naphtha and
Natural Gas and after availing the benefit of exemption from the payment
of purchase tax did not himself/itself used the same, but, instead, sold
the same to another entity – EPL and the said another entity – EPL used
the said raw materials for generating the electricity, which thereafter
came to be sold to the respondent - ESL pursuant to the power purchase
agreement. The submission on behalf of the respondent that as
Naphtha and Natural Gas were transferred to EPL for generating the
electricity, which in turn came to be used by the respondent – ESL for
manufacture of HRC, and it cannot be said that there is a breach of
conditions of original Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992, cannot be
accepted.
11.1 The original Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992 does not provide
that the eligible unit after purchase of the raw materials instead of using
the same by itself or himself can transfer/sold to another unit and the
38
another unit can use the said raw materials. If the submission on behalf
of the respondent is accepted, in that case, it will be varying the
conditions imposed in the original Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992 and
it shall tantamount to adding something more than what is not provided
in the exemption notification/original entry, which is not permissible. The
original notification does not at all permit such transfer and use of the
raw materials after availing the exemption for use of another unit, who,
as such is otherwise not entitled to any exemption as per the incentive
policy.
12. At this stage, it is required to be noted that as per the incentive
policy, the actual benefit of exemption was available to certain industries
as per the list of ‘eligible’ industries. The power producing companies
were specifically put in the list of ‘ineligible’ industries for any exemption
from sale/purchase tax on procurement of raw materials. Thus, the
Essar Power Limited being a power producing company was not eligible
at all for any exemption from sale/purchase tax on procurement of raw
materials. Therefore, as such, by such transfer and sale of raw
materials by ESL to EPL, EPL got the benefit of exemption, which
otherwise being a power producing company was not eligible for such an
exemption.
39
13. Learned counsel appearing on behalf of the State is right in
submitting that if such an interpretation put forward by the respondent is
accepted, in that case, it would completely defeat the purpose of the
exemption and it would permit industries, which are eligible for
exemption to simply purchase the raw materials; not use them for
manufacturing in their own units, and simply transmit them for use and
manufacture to other units, even though such units are not eligible for
exemption under the notification.
14. Thus, by transfer of Naphtha and Natural Gas by the eligible unit –
ESL to another unit – EPL, after availing the exemption from payment of
purchase tax and not using the Naphtha and Natural Gas (raw materials)
for its own use for manufacture of the goods so manufactured by it, it
can be said to be violating the eligibility criteria/condition mentioned in
the original Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992 and it can be said that the
respondent -Essar Steel Ltd. Committed a breach of the declaration
given in Form No.26. Therefore, the High Court has committed an error
in holding that the respondent did not commit any breach of any of the
conditions mentioned in the original Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992
and that the respondent fulfilled all the conditions provided in the said
Entry and that there was no breach of any of the conditions provided in
the original Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992.
40
14.1 While the exemption notification should be liberally construed,
beneficiary must fall within the ambit of the exemption and fulfill the
conditions thereof. In case such conditions are not fulfilled, the issue of
application of the notification does not arise.
14.2 It is settled law that the notification has to be read as a whole. If
any of the conditions laid down in the notification is not fulfilled, the party
is not entitled to the benefit of that notification. An exception and/or an
exempting provision in a taxing statute should be construed strictly and it
is not open to the court to ignore the conditions prescribed in industrial
policy and the exemption notifications.
14.3 The exemption notification should be strictly construed and given
meaning according to legislative intendment. The Statutory provisions
providing for exemption have to be interpreted in the light of the words
employed in them and there cannot be any addition or subtraction from
the statutory provisions.
14.4 As per the law laid down by this Court in catena of decisions, in the
taxing statute, it is the plain language of the provision that has to be
preferred, where language is plain and is capable of determining defined
meaning. Strict interpretation to the provision is to be accorded to each
case on hand. Purposive interpretation can be given only when there is
41
an ambiguity in the statutory provision or it alleges to absurd results,
which is so not found in the present case.
14.5 In the present case, the intention of the State to provide the
incentive under the incentive policy was to give benefit of exemption
from payment of purchase tax was to the specific class of industries and,
more particularly, as per the list of ‘eligible industries’. Exemption was
not available to the industries listed in the ‘ineligible’ industries. It was
never the intension of the State Government while framing the incentive
policy to grant the benefit of exemption to ‘ineligible industries’ like the
power producing industries like the EPL, which as such was put in the
list of ‘ineligible’ industries.
14.6 Now, so far as the submission on behalf of the respondent that in
the event of obscure in a provision in a fiscal statute, construction
favourable to the assessee should be adopted is concerned, the said
principle shall not be applicable to construction of an exemption
notification, as it is clear and not ambiguous. Thus, it will be for the
assessee to show that he comes within the purview of the notification.
Eligibility clause, it is well settled, in relation to exemption notification
must be given effect to as per the language and not to expand the scope
deviating from the language. There is a vast difference and distinction
42
between a charging provision in a fiscal statute and an exemption
notification.

15. Now, the next question, which is posed for the consideration of this
Court is whether the subsequent amended Entries vide notifications
dated 14.11.2000 and 16.01.2002 can be said to be clarificatory and/or
take away any of the rights under the original Entry No.255(2) dated
05.03.1992 and/or the subsequent notifications modifies/amends the
basic conditions for availing the exemption under the original Entry
No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992?
15.1 Having gone through the second notification dated 14.11.2000/the
amended Entry No.255(2), it can be seen that the same is clarificatory in
nature and there is no change in the basic eligibility criteria/conditions
mentioned in the original Entry No.255(2). In the subsequent
notification, instead of the word “him”, the word used is “it” and it is
specifically made clear that the raw materials so purchased shall be
used in its industrial unit for which it has obtained the eligibility certificate
for the manufacture of goods for sale within the State or outside the
State of Gujarat or as packing materials in the packing of goods so
manufactured. Even as per the original Entry No.255(2) dated
05.03.1992 and even as per the Form No.26 appended thereto, the
eligible unit was required to actually use the raw materials purchased. In
43
the subsequent notification, it is made explicitly clear that the raw
materials so purchased are to be used by the eligible unit in its industrial
unit. Therefore, the basic requirement that the eligible unit has to
actually use such raw materials purchased by him is in no way modified
and/or amended. On the contrary, the subsequent amended Entry
No.255(2) dated 14.11.2000 can be said to be expanding the scope of
eligibility as it was. Earlier the eligible unit was required to actually use
the goods purchased within the State of Gujarat and as per the
subsequent amended Entry No.255(2) dated 14.11.2000 even if such
goods are used by it outside the State of Gujarat in that case also such
eligible unit was held to be eligible for exemption. Even as per the
condition No.6 in the amended Entry No.255(2) dated 14.11.2000, it is
specifically mentioned that the eligible unit shall actually use the goods
purchased, which was the requirement in the first notification also.
Therefore, the subsequent amended Entry No.255(2) vide notification
dated 14.11.2000 can be said to be clarificatory and/or expanding the
scope of eligibility, but in no case, it can be said to be taking away any
right under the original Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992.

16. Similarly, even the third amended Entry No.255(2) dated
16.01.2002 also cannot be said to be taking away any right available
under the original Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992.
44
16.1 Even the subsequent amended Entry No.255(2) vide notification
dated 16.01.2002 also can be said to be expanding the scope of
eligibility and in no way can be said to be taking away the rights
available to the eligible unit under the original Entry No.255(2) dated
05.03.1992. The eligibility criteria/condition that the eligible unit “shall
actually use the goods” remain the same even in the said amended
Entry No.255(2) dated 16.01.2002. Therefore, the subsequent
notifications/amended Entries cannot be said to be in any way in conflict
with the first/parent notification/Entry No.255(2).
17. As observed hereinabove, even under the first/ original Entry
No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992 and even as per the declaration furnished
in Form No.26, the eligible unit – respondent – ESL was required to
actually use the goods by him/within the State of Gujarat as raw
materials, for manufacture of goods by him. But by actually not using
the raw materials so purchased by which it got the benefit of exemption
from payment of purchase tax, sold the said raw materials, which in fact
were required to be used by him, to another unit/entity, which another
unit used it for manufacture of its goods – generating the electricity and
which in turn the EPL sold to the ESL. Thus, the ESL– eligible unit did
not comply with and/or fulfilled the eligibility criteria/conditions even as
per the original Entry No.255(2) and therefore, was/is not entitled to the
exemption from payment of the purchase tax as per the exemption
45
notification dated 05.03.1992 vide original Entry No.255(2). Therefore,
even assuming that the subsequent amended Entries vide second and
third notifications are not to be made applicable in that case also the
respondent -Essar Steel Ltd. being eligible unit was required to comply
with and/or fulfill all the eligibility criteria/conditions mentioned in the
original Entry No.255(2), which as observed hereinabove, by not actually
using the raw materials by himself and transferring/selling the same to
the non-eligible unit, the respondent was not entitled to avail the benefit
of exemption even under the original Entry No.255(2).
18. Even as per Form No. 26 (Entry No.255), as per the declaration
filed by the respondent, being ‘eligible’ unit while purchasing goods for
use in manufacturing goods, it was declared that the raw materials so
purchased will be used by it in the manufacture of goods for sale. Thus,
by not using the raw materials so purchased by it, the respondent –
eligible unit – ESL has violated the declaration given in Form No.26.
Therefore, the respondent was not entitled to the exemption even under
the first/parent notification.
19. Even the reasoning given by the Tribunal and the High Court that
the demand of purchase tax is hit by the principle of promissory estoppel
also cannot be accepted. In the present case, first of all, the principle of
promissory estoppel to the exemption sought ought not to have been
46
applied at all. Each assessment year/period is independent. Even
otherwise, in the facts and circumstances of the case, the principle of
promissory estoppel shall not be applicable. In the present case, as
observed hereinabove, the respondent – eligible unit as such was not
entitled to the exemption even under the first notification as it violated
the declaration given in Form No.26 as well as did not comply with
and/or fulfilled the eligibility criteria/conditions required to be fulfilled
while availing benefit of exemption. As observed hereinabove, the
respondent did not actually use the raw materials purchased by him/it
and availed the exemption and after availing the exemption sold the said
raw materials to ‘ineligible’ unit - EPL and the EPL used the same for
manufacture of its goods – generating the electricity, which subsequently
again sold to the ESL – eligible unit on payment of sale consideration.
20. At the cost of repetition, it is observed that as per the incentive
policy declared by the State Government, the power generating
company was put in the list of ‘ineligible industries’ and thus,
independently was not entitled to the exemption under the original Entry
No.255(2). Thus, by such a transfer/sale from the eligible unit to another
unit the benefit of exemption is availed by the ‘ineligible’ industry, which
is wholly impermissible and that cannot be said to be the intention of the
Government while providing the incentive in the form of exemption from
payment of purchase tax. Such a benefit of exemption was available
47
only to eligible units/industries and the steel industry of which Essar
Steel Ltd. belonged being one of the eligible industries. Therefore, there
was no question of applicability of principle of promissory estoppel.
20.1 Even otherwise in the facts and circumstances of the case
narrated hereinabove, the principle of promissory estoppel shall not be
applicable. ESL had furnished wrong and false declarations. In the
original notification/entry, it was not provided that even if the raw
materials so purchased is not used by itself after availing the exemption,
the same can be sold to another entity, which is ‘ineligible’ industry. It
did not provide that in such a situation also and despite the fact that raw
material is not actually used by the eligible unit, which was required to be
used even as per the declaration in Form No.26, such eligible unit shall
be entitled to the exemption. No such promise was given. The wordings
and the language used in the exemption notifications are very clear,
simple and unambiguous. Therefore, when there was no such promise
and/or representation, the demand cannot be said to be hit by the
principle of promissory estoppel as observed and held by the Tribunal as
well as the High Court in the impugned judgment and order.
20.2 The doctrine of promissory estoppel is an equitable remedy and
has to be moulded depending on the facts of each case and not
straitjacketed into pigeonholes. In other words, there cannot be any
hard and fast rule for applying the doctrine of promissory estoppel but
48
the doctrine has to evolve and expand itself so as to do justice between
the parties and ensure equity between the parties. In the present case,
the principle of promissory estoppel shall not be applicable.
20.3 In taxing matters, the doctrine of promissory estoppel as such is
not applicable and the Revenue can take a position different from its
earlier stand in a case with established distinguishing features. [See
Commissioner of Central Excise, Bangalore – 1 Vs. Bal Pharma
Limited, Bangalore and Ors., (2011) 2 SSC 620].
20.4 The rules of promissory estoppel and estoppel by conduct may not
be applied to alter or amend the specific terms and against statutory
provisions. All the terms and conditions contained in the exemption
notification shall prevail and the person claiming the exemption has to
fulfil and satisfy all the eligibility criteria/conditions mentioned in the
exemption notification.
21. Now, so far as the submission on behalf of the respondent that
prior to 14.11.2000, there was no demand of the purchase tax and/or the
exemption from payment of purchase tax was made available in the
earlier assessment years and, therefore, in the subsequent assessment
years also, the respondent – assessee shall be entitled to the exemption
49
is concerned, the aforesaid has no substance. In the taxation matters,
every assessment year/period is a different year/period.
21.1 The Scheme of the Statute does not in any manner indicate that
the incentive provided has to continue for the consecutive years
irrespective of the fulfilling of the eligibility conditions. Applicability of
the incentive is directly related to the eligibility and not dehors the same.
If it is found that the industrial undertaking does not fulfil the eligibility
criteria, it cannot claim the incentive/exemption.
22. Therefore, the submission on behalf of the respondent – assessee
that as in the earlier assessment years benefit of exemption was granted
to the respondent and, therefore, in the subsequent assessment years
also, despite the fact that it is found that the respondent was/is not
eligible for the benefit of exemption under the original Notification/Entry
No.255(2) cannot be accepted. If such a submission is accepted in that
case it will be perpetuating the illegality and granting the benefit of
exemption to ‘ineligible industry’, who did not fulfill and/or comply with
the eligibility criteria/conditions mentioned in the exemption notification.
The principle of promissory estoppel shall not be applicable contrary to
the Statute. Merely because erroneously and/or on misinterpretation,
some benefits in the earlier assessment years were wrongly given,
50
cannot be a ground to continue the wrong and to grant the benefit of
exemption though not eligible under the exemption notification.
23. Now, so far as the levy of penalty is concerned, it is to be noted
that the penalty is leviable under Section 45 and such a penalty is
leviable under sub-sections (5) and (6) of Section 45 of the Act, 1969
and the penalty is leviable on purchase tax assessed. It provides that if
the difference of tax paid and tax leviable/assessed is more than twentyfive percent, in that case, the dealer shall be deemed to have failed to
pay the tax to the extent of the difference between the amount so
assessed/re-assessed and the amount paid and, in that case, there shall
be levied on such dealer a penalty not extending one and one-half times
the difference as per sub-section (5). Therefore, there being difference
of more than twenty five percent, penalty to the aforesaid extent shall be
leviable. This is a clear case of false and wrong claim of exemption, as
the exempted goods were transferred to a third person and used in an
‘ineligible’ industry. This is a case of deliberate violation and evil doing.
23.1 In the present case, as the difference between total tax paid and
the purchase tax is more than twenty-five percent, the respondent is
deemed to have failed to pay the tax as per sub-section (5) of Section 45
and, therefore, liable to pay the penalty not exceeding one and one-half
times. The words used in sub-section (6) of Section 45 is “there shall be
levied on such dealer a penalty not exceeding one and one-half times
51
the difference”. As noted above, in the present case, the modus
operandi which was adopted by the respondent – Essar Steel warrants a
penalty. Though, the raw material was required to be used by itself for
the manufacture of their goods, after availing the exemption as eligible
unit and instead of using the same for itself/himself, the ESL sold the raw
materials to an ‘ineligible’ entity – EPL, who used it for manufacture of its
own goods – generating the electricity, which again came to be sold to
ESL under the power purchase agreement.
23.2 As observed hereinabove, as such the EPL, under the incentive
scheme, was not eligible at all for exemption from payment of purchase
tax as in fact power generating companies were put in the list of
‘ineligible industries’. Therefore, by such a modus operandi, the benefit,
which was not available to the EPL was made available by such transfer
of raw materials by the Essar Steel Ltd. to Essar Power Limited. As
observed hereinabove, there is a breach of declaration in Form No.26
also. Therefore, in the facts and circumstances of the case, the levy of
penalty is justified and warranted. The Joint Commissioner, the Tribunal
as well as the High Court have committed a grave error in quashing and
setting aside the penalty imposed by the Assessing Officer.
24. In view of the above and for the reasons stated above, the
impugned common judgment and order passed by the High Court as
52
well as that of the Tribunal quashing and setting aside the demand of
purchase tax from the respondent are hereby quashed and set aside. It
is held that the respondent -Essar Steel Ltd. – the eligible unit was not
entitled to the exemption from payment of purchase tax under the
original Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992, firstly, on the ground that it
did not fulfill the eligibility criteria/conditions mentioned in the original
Entry No.255(2) dated 05.03.1992 and secondly that there was a breach
of declaration in Form No.26 furnished by the respondent – eligible unit –
Essar Steel Ltd. The orders setting aside the penalty imposed by the
Assessing Officer are also hereby quashed and set aside. The order
passed by the Assessing Officer levying the demand of purchase tax and
imposing the penalty is hereby restored.
25. Present appeals are accordingly allowed. In the facts and
circumstances of the case, there shall be no order as to costs.
………………………………….J.
 [M.R. SHAH]
NEW DELHI; ………………………………….J.
JANUARY 21, 2022. [SANJIV KHANNA]
53

Landmark Cases of India / सुप्रीम कोर्ट के ऐतिहासिक फैसले

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