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Article 51A Constitution of India

Fundamental Duties in Constitution of India:

Article 51A in The Indian Constitution

Fundamental duties It shall be the duty of every citizen of India (a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national Flag and the National Anthem;
(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
(e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism…

Article 51 Constitution of India

Article 51 in The Indian Constitution

Promotion of international peace and security The State shall endeavour to
(a) promote international peace and security;
(b) maintain just and honourable relations between nations;
(c) foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised peoples with one another; and encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 51 of Indian Constitution:
Kesavananda Bharati vs State Of Kerala And Anr on 24 April, 1973 - Supreme Court of India
Sri Sri Sri Lakshamana vs State Of Andhra Pradesh & Anr on 24 January, 1996 - Supreme Court of India
Gvk Inds. Ltd & Anr vs The Income Tax Officer & Anr on 1 March, 2011 - Supreme Court of India
State Of West Bengal vs Kesoram Industries Ltd. And Ors on 15 January, 2004 - Supreme Court of India
In Re: The Delhi Laws Act, 1912, The vs Unknown on 23 May, 1951 - Supreme C…

Article 50 Constitution of India

Article 50 in The Indian Constitution

Separation of judiciary from executive The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 50 of Indian Constitution:
Kesavananda Bharati vs State Of Kerala And Anr on 24 April, 1973 - Supreme Court of India
Supreme Court vs Union Of India on 16 October, 2015 - Supreme Court of India
Supreme Court vs Union Of India on 6 October, 1993 - Supreme Court of India
Tassadiq Hussain vs Mohd. Rashid Qureshi & Ors on 23 November, 2010 - Supreme Court of India
Kartar Singh vs State Of Punjab on 11 March, 1994 - Supreme Court of India
State Of Bihar & Anr vs Bal Mukund Sah & Ors on 14 March, 2000 - Supreme Court of India
State Of Bihar & Anr vs Bal Mukund Sah & Ors on 14 March, 2000 - Supreme Court of India
Madras Bar Association vs Union Of India & Anr on 25 September, 2014 - Supreme…

Article 49 Constitution of India

Article 49 in The Indian Constitution

Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interests, declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance, from spoliation, disfigurement, destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 49 of Indian Constitution:
Raghunath Das vs Gokal Chand And Another on 1 May, 1958 - Supreme Court of India
In The Matter Of: Under Article 143 vs Unknown on 30 September, 1964 - Supreme Court of India
Kehar Singh & Ors vs Dewan Singh & Ors on 21 January, 1966 - Supreme Court of India
Attar Singh & Others vs The State Of U. P on 17 December, 1958 - Supreme Court of India
M.S. Madhusoodhanan & Anr vs Kerala Kaumudi Pvt. Ltd. & Ors on 1 August, 2003 - Supreme Court of India
M.S. Madh…

Article 48A Constitution of India

Article 48A in The Indian Constitution

Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 48A of Indian Constitution:
State Of Gujarat vs Mirzapur Moti Kureshi Kassab on 26 October, 2005 - Supreme Court of India
State Of Gujarat vs Mirzapur Moti Kureshi Kassab on 26 October, 2005 - Supreme Court of India
Bombay Dyeing & Mfg. Co. Ltd vs Bombay Environmental Action on 7 March, 2006 - Supreme Court of India
Association For Enviornment vs State Of Kerala & Ors on 2 July, 2013 - Supreme Court of India
Indian Handicrafts Emporium & Ors vs Union Of India & Ors on 27 August, 2003 - Supreme Court of India
Indian Handicrafts Emporium & Ors vs Union Of India & Ors on 27 August, 2003 - Supreme Court of India
Union Of India vs …

Article 48 Constitution of India

Article 48 in The Indian Constitution

Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall, in particular, take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter, of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 48 of Indian Constitution:
State Of Gujarat vs Mirzapur Moti Kureshi Kassab on 26 October, 2005 - Supreme Court of India
State Of Gujarat vs Mirzapur Moti Kureshi Kassab on 26 October, 2005 - Supreme Court of India
Mohd. Hanif Quareshi & Others vs The State Of Bihar(And Connected on 23 April, 1958 - Supreme Court of India
Akhil Bharat Goseva Sangh vs State Of A.P.& Ors on 29 March, 2006 - Supreme Court of India
S.R. Bommai And Others Etc. Etc. vs Union Of India And Others Etc. Etc. on 11 March, 1994 - Supreme Court of India
S.R. Bommai v…

Article 47 Constitution of India

Article 47 in The Indian Constitution

Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 47 of Indian Constitution:
Khoday Distilleries Ltd vs State Of Karnataka on 19 October, 1994 - Supreme Court of India
Khoday Distilleries Ltd vs State Of Karnataka on 19 October, 1994 - Supreme Court of India
Kesavananda Bharati vs State Of Kerala And Anr on 24 April, 1973 - Supreme Court of India
Synthetics & Chemicals Ltd. Etc vs State Of U.P. And Ors on 25 October, 1989 - Supreme Court of India

Article 46 Constitution of India

Article 46 in The Indian Constitution

Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 46 of Indian Constitution:
State Of Kerala & Anr vs N. M. Thomas & Ors on 19 September, 1975 - Supreme Court of India
Akhil Bharatiya Soshit vs Union Of India And Ors on 14 November, 1980 - Supreme Court of India
Ashoka Kumar Thakur vs Union Of India & Ors on 10 April, 2008 - Supreme Court of India
Indra Sawhney Etc. Etc vs Union Of India And Others, Etc. on 16 November, 1992 - Supreme Court of India
Sri Sri Sri Lakshamana vs State Of Andhra Pradesh & Anr on 24 January…

Article 45 Constitution of India

Article 45 in The Indian Constitution

Provision for free and compulsory education for children The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 45 of Indian Constitution:
Unni Krishnan, J.P. And Ors. Etc. vs State Of Andhra Pradesh And Ors. on 4 February, 1993 - Supreme Court of India
Society For Un-Aided P.School Of vs U.O.I & Anr on 12 April, 2012 - Supreme Court of India
State Of M.P vs Rakesh Kohli & Anr on 11 May, 2012 - Supreme Court of India
In Re: The Kerala Education Bill, vs Unknown on 22 May, 1958 - Supreme Court of India
State Of U.P. & Ors vs Pawan Kumar Divedi & Ors on 2 September, 2014 - Supreme Court of India
Pramati Educational & Cultural vs Union Of India & Ors on 6 May, 1948 - Supreme Court of …

Article 44 Constitution of India

Article 44 in The Indian Constitution

Uniform civil code for the citizens The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 44 of Indian Constitution:
Smt. Sarla Mudgal, President, vs Union Of India & Ors on 10 May, 1995 - Supreme Court of India
Lily Thomas, Etc. Etc. vs Union Of India & Ors. on 5 April, 2000 - Supreme Court of India
Wali Singh vs Sohan Singh on 26 October, 1953 - Supreme Court of India
Ms. Jordan Diengdeh vs S.S. Chopra on 10 May, 1985 - Supreme Court of India
National Insurance Co. Ltd vs Sujir Ganesh Nayak & Co. & Anr on 21 March, 1997 - Supreme Court of India
National Textile Workers vs P.R. Ramkrishnan And Others on 10 December, 1982 - Supreme Court of India
Mohd. Ahmed Khan vs Shah Bano Begum And Ors on 23 April, 1985 - Supreme Court of India
S.R. Bommai vs Union Of India on 11 March, 1994 - Su…

Article 43A Constitution of India

Article 43A in The Indian Constitution

Participation of workers in management of industries The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 43A of Indian Constitution:
Will update soon

Article 43 Constitution of India

Article 43 in The Indian Constitution

Living wage, etc, for workers The State shall endeavour to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way, to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or co operative basis in rural areas

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 43 of Indian Constitution:
Madan Mohan Pathak vs Union Of India & Ors. Etc on 21 February, 1978 - Supreme Court of India
M.R.F. Ltd vs Inspector Kerala Govt. And Ors on 11 November, 1998 - Supreme Court of India
The Life Insurance Corporation Of vs D. J. Bahadur & Ors on 10 November, 1980 - Supreme Court of India
M.R.F. Ltd vs Inspector Kerala Govt. And Ors on 11 November, 1998 - Supreme Cou…

Article 42 Constitution of India

Article 42 in The Indian Constitution

Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 42 of Indian Constitution:
Luxmi Tea Company Limited vs Pradip Kumar Sarkar on 7 November, 1989 - Supreme Court of India
Nanalal Zaver And Another vs Bombay Life Assurance Co. Ltd.And on 4 May, 1950 - Supreme Court of India
Bandhua Mukti Morcha vs Union Of India & Others on 16 December, 1983 - Supreme Court of India
Air India Statutory Corporation vs United Labour Union & Ors on 6 November, 1996 - Supreme Court of India
Municipal Corporation Of Delhi vs Female Workers (Muster Roll) And on 8 March, 2000 - Supreme Court of India
B. Shah vs Presiding Officer, Labour Court, on 12 October, 1977 - Supreme Court of India
Yakub Abdul Razak Memon vs State Of Maharashtra Th:Cbi on …

Article 41 Constitution of India

Article 41 in The Indian Constitution

Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 41 of Indian Constitution:
Unni Krishnan, J.P. And Ors. Etc. vs State Of Andhra Pradesh And Ors. on 4 February, 1993 - Supreme Court of India
Central Inland Water vs Brojo Nath Ganguly & Anr on 6 April, 1986 - Supreme Court of India
Miss Mohini Jain vs State Of Karnataka And Ors on 30 July, 1992 - Supreme Court of India
Modern Dental College & Res.Cen. & vs State Of Madhya Pradesh & Ors on 2 May, 2016 - Supreme Court of India
M.C. Mehta vs State Of Tamil Nadu And Others on 10 December, 1996 - Supreme C…

Article 40 Constitution of India

Article 40 in The Indian Constitution

Organisation of village panchayats The State shall take steps to organize village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self government

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 40 of Indian Constitution:
Madras Refineries Ltd vs Controlling Revenue Authority, on 5 January, 1977 - Supreme Court of India
Bhanumati Etc. Etc vs State Of U.P.Tr.Prinl.Sec.& Ors on 4 May, 2010 - Supreme Court of India
Bawa Harigir vs Assistant Custodian, Evacuee on 7 March, 1961 - Supreme Court of India
Village Panchayat Calangute vs Additional Director Of Panchayat on 2 July, 2012 - Supreme Court of India
U.P. Gram Panchayat Adhikari vs Daya Ram Saroj & Ors on 11 December, 2006 - Supreme Court of India
State Of U.P. & Ors.Etc vs Pradhan Sangh Kshettra Samiti & on 24 March, 1995 - Supreme Court of India
Additional District Mag…

Article 39A Constitution of India

Article 39A in The Indian Constitution

Equal justice and free legal aid The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice, on a basis of equal opportunity, and shall, in particular, provide free legal aid, by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way, to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 39A of Indian Constitution:
Let us find.............

Article 39 Constitution of India

Article 39 in The Indian Constitution

Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State: The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing
(a) that the citizens, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means to livelihood;
(b) that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good;
(c) that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment;
(d) that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women;
(e) that the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength;
(f) that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against…

Article 38 Constitution of India

Article 38 in The Indian Constitution

State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people
(1) The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life
(2) The State shall, in particular, strive to minimize the inequalities in income, and endeavor to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities, not only amongst individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 38 of Indian Constitution:
Minerva Mills Ltd. & Ors vs Union Of India & Ors on 31 July, 1980 - Supreme Court of India
Minerva Mills Ltd. And Ors. vs Union Of India (Uoi) And Ors. on 9 May, 1980 - Supreme Court of India
Kesavananda Bharati vs State Of Kerala And…

Article 37 Constitution of India

Article 37 in The Indian Constitution

Application of the principles contained in this Part The provisions contained in this Part shall not be enforceable by any court, but the principles therein laid down are nevertheless fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 37 of Indian Constitution:
Minerva Mills Ltd. & Ors vs Union Of India & Ors on 31 July, 1980 - Supreme Court of India
Minerva Mills Ltd. And Ors. vs Union Of India (Uoi) And Ors. on 9 May, 1980 - Supreme Court of India
Shree Krishna Agency Ltd vs Commissioner Of Income Tax on 24 August, 1971 - Supreme Court of India
Kesavananda Bharati vs State Of Kerala And Anr on 24 April, 1973 - Supreme Court of India
The State Of Vindhya Pradesh(Now vs Moradhwaj Singh And Others on 24 February, 1960 - Supreme Court of India
State Of Mysore vs H. Sanjeeviah…

Article 36 Constitution of India

Article 36 in The Indian Constitution

Definition In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, the State has the same meaning as in Part III

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 36 of Indian Constitution:
Jay Laxmi Salt Words (P) Ltd vs State Of Gujarat on 4 May, 1994 - Supreme Court of India
National Bank Of Lahore Ltd vs Sohanlal Sehgal And Others on 5 March, 1965 - Supreme Court of India
Central Inland Water vs Brojo Nath Ganguly & Anr on 6 April, 1986 - Supreme Court of India
State Of Punjab vs Modern Cultivators, Ladwa on 8 May, 1964 - Supreme Court of India
Icici vs State Of Maharashtra And Ors. on 9 April, 1999 - Supreme Court of India
David Patrick Ward And Anr. vs Union Of India (Uoi) And Ors. on 26 August, 1992 - Supreme Court of India
Deena @ Deena Dayal Etc. Etc vs Union Of India And Others on 23 September, 1983 - Supreme Court of India
Ajay Hasia Etc vs Khalid Mujib Sehravardi & Ors. Etc on 13 Novembe…

Article 35 Constitution of India

Article 35 in The Indian Constitution

Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution,
(a) Parliament shall have, and the Legislature of a State shall not have, power to make laws
(i) with respect to any of the matters which under clause ( 3 ) of Article 16, clause ( 3 ) of Article 32, Article 33 and Article 34 may be provided for by law made by Parliament; and
(ii) for prescribing punishment for those acts which are declared to be offences under this Part; and Parliament shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Constitution, make laws for prescribing punishment for the acts referred to in sub clause (ii);
(b) any law in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in the territory of India with respect to any of the matters referred to in sub clause (i) of clause (a) or providing for punishment for any act referred to in sub clause (ii) of that clause shall, subject to the terms there of and to …

Article 34 Constitution of India

Article 34 in The Indian Constitution

Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, Parliament may by law indemnify any person in the service of the Union or of a State or any other person in respect of any act done by him in connection with the maintenance or restoration of order in any area within the territory of India where martial law was in force or validate any sentence passed, punishment inflicted, forfeiture ordered or other act done under martial law in such area

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 34 of Indian Constitution:
Union Of India vs Videocon Industries Ltd. on 5 March, 2012 - Delhi High Court
Vijay Ramchandra Thopate vs D.C.B. Cid on 19 October, 2010 - Bombay High Court
Vijay Ramchandra Thopate vs D.C.B. Cid on 19 October, 2010 - Bombay High Court
Bhubaneshwar Singh And Anr. vs Kanthal India Ltd. And …

Article 33 Constitution of India

Article 33 in The Indian Constitution

Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application etc Parliament may, by law, determine to what extent any of the rights conferred by this Part shall, in their application to,
(a) the members of the Armed Forces; or
(b) the members of the Forces charged with the maintenance of public order; or
(c) persons employed in any bureau or other organisation established by the State for purposes of intelligence or counter intelligence; or
(d) persons employed in, or in connection with, the telecommunication systems set up for the purposes of any Force, bureau or organisation referred to in clauses (a) to (c), be restricted or abrogated so as to ensure the proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline among them

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 33 of Indian Constitution:
Union Of India vs Reliance Indstries Ltd & Anr on 22 March, 2013 - D…

Article 32 Constitution of India

Article 32 in The Indian Constitution

Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part
(1) The right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed
(2) The Supreme Court shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part
(3) Without prejudice to the powers conferred on the Supreme Court by clause ( 1 ) and ( 2 ), Parliament may by law empower any other court to exercise within the local limits of its jurisdiction all or any of the powers exercisable by the Supreme Court under clause ( 2 )
(4) The right guaranteed by this article shall not be suspended except as otherwise provided for by this Constitution

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 32 of I…

Article 31C Constitution of India

Article 31C in The Indian Constitution

Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 13, no law giving effect to the policy of the State towards securing all or any of the principles laid down in Part IV shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by Article 14 or Article 19 and no law containing a declaration that it is for giving effect to such policy shall be called in question in any court on the ground that it does not give effect to such policy: Provided that where such law is made by the Legislature of a State, the provisions of this Article shall not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, has received his assent Right to Constitutional Remedies

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 31C of Indian Constitution:
Kesavananda Bharati v…

Article 31B Constitution of India

Article 31B in The Indian Constitution

alidation of certain Acts and Regulations Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions contained in Article 31A, none of the Acts and Regulations specified in the Ninth Schedule nor any of the provisions thereof shall be deemed to be void, or ever to have become void, on the ground that such Act, Regulation or provision is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by, any provisions of this Part, and notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court or tribunal to the contrary, each of the said Acts and Regulations shall, subject to the power of any competent Legislature to repeal or amend it, continue in force

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 31B of Indian Constitution:
Kesavananda Bharati vs State Of Kerala And Anr on 24 April, 1973 - Supreme Court of India
Vithalrao Udhaorao Uttarwar And vs The State Of Maharashtra on 13 August, 1976 -…

Article 31A Constitution of India

Article 31A in The Indian Constitution

Saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc ( 1 ) Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 13, no law providing for
(a) the acquisition by the State of any estate or of any rights therein or the extinguishment or modification of any such rights, or
(b) the taking over of the management of any property by the State for a limited period either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of the property, or
(c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations, or
(d) the extinguishment or modification of any rights of managing agents, secretaries and treasurers, managing directors, directors or managers of corporations, or of any voting rights of shareholders thereof, or
(e) the extinguishment or modification of any rights accruing by virtue of any agreement, lease or licence for the purpose of searching for, or …

Article 30 Constitution of India

Article 30 in The Indian Constitution

Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
(1) All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice
(1A) In making any law providing for the compulsory acquisition of any property of an educational institution established and administered by a minority, referred to in clause ( 1 ), the State shall ensure that the amount fixed by or determined under such law for the acquisition of such property is such as would not restrict or abrogate the right guaranteed under that clause
(2) The state shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion or language

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 30 of Indian Constitution:
T.M.A.Pai Foundation &…

Article 29 Constitution of India

Article 29 in The Indian Constitution

Protection of interests of minorities
(1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same
(2) No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 29 of Indian Constitution:
T.M.A.Pai Foundation & Ors vs State Of Karnataka & Ors on 31 October, 2002 - Supreme Court of India
T.M.A.Pai Foundation & vs State Of Karnataka & Ors.Etc.Etc on 25 November, 2002 - Supreme Court of India
Kesavananda Bharati vs State Of Kerala And Anr on 24 April, 1973 - Supreme Court of India
The Ahmedabad St. Xaviers College vs State Of Gujarat & Anr on 26 April, 1974 - Supreme Court of Ind…

Article 28 Constitution of India

Article 28 in The Indian Constitution

Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions
(1) No religion instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds
(2) Nothing in clause ( 1 ) shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution
(3) No person attending any educational institution recognised by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such person or, if such person is a minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto Cultural and Educational Rights

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judg…

Article 27 Constitution of India

Article 27 in The Indian Constitution

Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion No person shall be compelled to pay any taxes, the proceeds of which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religions denomination

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 27 of Indian Constitution:
Prafull Goradia vs Union Of India on 28 January, 2011 - Supreme Court of India
T.M.A.Pai Foundation & Ors vs State Of Karnataka & Ors on 31 October, 2002 - Supreme Court of India
Mahant Sri Jagannath Ramanuj Das vs The State Of Orissa And Another on 16 March, 1954 - Supreme Court of India
Naresh Chandra Sanyal vs Calcutta Stock Exchange on 25 September, 1970 - Supreme Court of India
The Commissioner, Hindu vs Sri Lakshmindra Thirtha Swamiar on 16 April, 1954 - Supreme Court of India
Reliance Natural Resources Ltd vs Reliance Industries Ltd on 7 M…

Article 26 Constitution of India

Article 26 in The Indian Constitution

Freedom to manage religious affairs Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right
(a) to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes;
(b) to manage its own affairs in matters of religion;
(c) to own and acquire movable and immovable property; and
(d) to administer such property in accordance with law

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 26 of Indian Constitution:
S.P. Mittal Etc. Etc vs Union Of India And Others on 8 November, 1982 - Supreme Court of India
Sardar Syedna Taher Saifuddin vs The State Of Bombay on 9 January, 1962 - Supreme Court of India
T.M.A.Pai Foundation & Ors vs State Of Karnataka & Ors on 31 October, 2002 - Supreme Court of India
Dr. Subramanian Swamy vs State Of Tamil Nadu & Ors on 6 December, 1948 - Supreme Court of India
T.M.A. Pai Foundation & Ors vs …

Article 25 Constitution of India

Article 25 in The Indian Constitution

Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
(1) Subject to public order, morality and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion
(2) Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or prevent the State from making any law
(a) regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice;
(b) providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus Explanation I The wearing and carrying of kirpans shall be deemed to be included in the profession of the Sikh religion Explanation II In sub clause (b) of clause reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the …

Article 24 Constitution of India

Article 24 in The Indian Constitution

Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment Provided that nothing in this sub clause shall authorise the detention of any person beyond the maximum period prescribed by any law made by Parliament under sub clause (b) of clause ( 7 ); or such person is detained in accordance with the provisions of any law made by Parliament under sub clauses (a) and (b) of clause ( 7 )

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 24 of Indian Constitution:
People'S Union For Democratic vs Union Of India & Others on 18 September, 1982 - Supreme Court of India
Kesavananda Bharati vs State Of Kerala And Anr on 24 April, 1973 - Supreme Court of India
Labourers Work[Ng On Salal vs State Of Jammu & Kashmir And Others on 2 March, 1983 - Supreme Court of India
M.C. Meh…

Article 23 Constitution of India

Article 23 in The Indian Constitution

Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour
(1) Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law
(2) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purpose, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 23 of Indian Constitution:
People'S Union For Democratic vs Union Of India & Others on 18 September, 1982 - Supreme Court of India
State Of Gujarat And Another vs Hon'Ble High Court Of Gujarat on 24 September, 1998 - Supreme Court of India
Sanjit Roy vs State Of. Rajasthan on 20 January, 1983 - Supreme Court of India
T.M.A.Pai Foundation & Ors vs State Of Karna…

Article 22 Constitution of India

Article 22 in The Indian Constitution

Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
(1) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest nor shall he be denied the right to consult, and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of his choice
(2) Every person who is arrested and detained in custody shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of twenty four hours of such arrest excluding the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to the court of the magistrate and no such person shall be detained in custody beyond the said period without the authority of a magistrate
(3) Nothing in clauses ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) shall apply (a) to any person who for the time being is an enemy alien; or (b) to any person who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention
(4) No law providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a person for…

Article 21 Constitution of India

Article 21 in The Indian Constitution

Protection of life and personal liberty No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 21 of Indian Constitution:
Additional District Magistrate, vs S. S. Shukla Etc. Etc on 28 April, 1976 - Supreme Court of India
Additional District Magistrate, vs Shivakant Shukla on 28 April, 1976 - Supreme Court of India
Maneka Gandhi vs Union Of India on 25 January, 1978 - Supreme Court of India
A.K. Gopalan vs The State Of Madras.Union Of on 19 May, 1950 - Supreme Court of India
Unni Krishnan, J.P. And Ors. Etc. vs State Of Andhra Pradesh And Ors. on 4 February, 1993 - Supreme Court of India
Satwant Singh Sawhney vs D. Ramarathnam, Assistant on 10 April, 1967 - Supreme Court of India
Smt. Gian Kaur vs The State Of Punjab on 21 March, 1996 - Supreme Court of India
Abdul Rehman Antulay & Ors vs R.S. Naya…

Article 20 Constitution of India

Article 20 in The Indian Constitution

Protection in respect of conviction for offences
(1) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of the law in force at the time of the commission of the act charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of the commission of the offence
(2) No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once
(3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 20 of Indian Constitution:
Rao Shiv Bahadur Singh And Another vs The State Of Vindhya Pradesh on 22 May, 1953 - Supreme Court of India
Shiv Dutt Rai Fateh Chand Etc. Etc vs Union Of India & Anr. Etc on 6 May, 1983 - Supreme Court of India
The State Of Bombay vs Kathi Kalu Oghad And Others on 4 August, 1961 - Supreme Court of India
Biswanat…

Article 19 Constitution of India

Article 19 in The Indian Constitution

Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc
(1) All citizens shall have the right
(a) to freedom of speech and expression;
(b) to assemble peaceably and without arms;
(c) to form associations or unions;
(d) to move freely throughout the territory of India;
(e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and
(f) omitted
(g) to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business
(2) Nothing in sub clause (a) of clause ( 1 ) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence
(3) Nothing in sub clause (b) of the…

Article 18 Constitution of India

Article 18 in The Indian Constitution

Abolition of titles No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State No person who is not a citizen of India shall, while he holds any office of profit or trust under the State, accept without the consent of the President any title from any foreign State No person holding any office of profit or trust under the State shall, without the consent of the President, accept any present, emolument, or office of any kind from or under any foreign State Right to Freedom

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 18 of Indian Constitution:
Additional District Magistrate, vs Shivakant Shukla on 28 April, 1976 - Supreme Court of India
Balaji Raghavan/S.P.Anand vs Union Of India on 15 December, 1995 - Supreme Court of India
Balaji Raghavan S.P. Anand vs Union Of India on 15 December, 1995 - Supreme Court of…

Article 17 Constitution of India

Article 17 in The Indian Constitution

Abolition of Untouchability Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden The enforcement of any disability arising out of Untouchability shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 17 of Indian Constitution:
Shailendra Bhardwaj & Ors vs Chandra Pal & Anr on 21 November, 2012 - Supreme Court of India
State Of Karnataka vs Appa Balu Ingale And Others on 1 December, 1992 - Supreme Court of India
Jindal Vijayanagar Steel (Jsw vs Jindal Praxair Oxygen Company Ltd on 29 August, 2006 - Supreme Court of India
Bharat Aluminium Co vs Kaiser Aluminium Technical on 28 January, 2016 - Supreme Court of India
Kesavananda Bharati vs State Of Kerala And Anr on 24 April, 1973 - Supreme Court of India - Cites 427
State Of Gujarat And Another vs Hon'Ble High Court Of Gujarat on 24 September, 1998 - Supreme Court of India
Adi …

Article 16 Constitution of India

Article 16 in The Indian Constitution

Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
(1) There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State
(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect or, any employment or office under the State
(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing, in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an office under the Government of, or any local or other authority within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to residence within that State or Union territory prior to such employment or appointment
(4) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class of citizens which, in the opi…

Article 15 Constitution of India

Article 15 in The Indian Constitution

Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
(1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them
(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to
(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and palaces of public entertainment; or
(b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public
(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children
(4) Nothing in this article or in clause ( 2 ) of Article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classe…

Article 14 Constitution of India

Article 14 in The Indian Constitution

Equality before law The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 14 of Indian Constitution:
Delhi Transport Corporation vs D.T.C. Mazdoor Congress on 4 September, 1990 - Supreme Court of India
U/A 143(1) Of Constitution vs Of India on 27 September, 2012 - Supreme Court of India
Kesavananda Bharati vs State Of Kerala And Anr on 24 April, 1973 - Supreme Court of India
The State Of West Bengal vs Anwar All Sarkarhabib on 11 January, 1952 - Supreme Court of India
Union Of India And Another vs Tulsiram Patel And Others on 11 July, 1985 - Supreme Court of India
Maganlal Chhagganlal (P) Ltd vs Municipal Corporation Of Greater on 11 April, 1974 - Supreme Court of India
The State Of West Bengal…

Article 13 Constitution of India

Article 13 in The Indian Constitution

Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights
(1) All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void
(2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void
(3) In this article, unless the context otherwise requires law includes any Ordinance, order, bye law, rule, regulation, notification, custom or usages having in the territory of India the force of law; laws in force includes laws passed or made by Legislature or other competent authority in the territory of India before the commencement of this Constitution and not previously repealed, notwithstanding that any such law or any part thereof may not be then in oper…

Article 12 Constitution of India

Article 12 in The Indian Constitution

Definition In this part, unless the context otherwise requires, the State includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 12 of Indian Constitution:
Pradeep Kumar Biswas vs Indian Institute Of Chemical on 16 April, 2002 - Supreme Court of India
Zee Telefilms Ltd. & Anr vs Union Of India & Ors on 2 February, 2005 - Supreme Court of India
Central Inland Water vs Brojo Nath Ganguly & Anr on 6 April, 1986 - Supreme Court of India
Som Prakash Rekhi vs Union Of India & Anr on 13 November, 1980 - Supreme Court of India
M/S. Zee Telefilms Ltd. & Anr vs Union Of India & Ors on 2 February, 2005 - Supreme Court of India
Smt. Ujjam Bai vs State Of Uttar Pradesh on 28 April…

Article 11 Constitution of India

Article 11 in The Indian Constitution

Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship.

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 11 of Indian Constitution:
Diwan Bros vs Central Bank Of India, Bombay And on 7 May, 1976 - Supreme Court of India
Gail (India) Ltd vs Gujarat State Petroleum Corpn. on 17 September, 2013 - Supreme Court of India
Jolly George Verghese & Anr vs The Bank Of Cochin on 4 February, 1980 - Supreme Court of India
P.N. Krishna Lal And Ors. Etc. Etc vs Govt. Of Kerala And Anr. Etc. Etc on 17 November, 1994 - Supreme Court of India
The State Trading Corporation Of vs The Commercial Tax Officer, on 26 July, 1963 - Supreme Court of India
Indian Chemical Products vs State Of Orissa & A…

Article 10 Constitution of India

Article 10 in The Indian Constitution

Continuance of the rights of citizenship Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen.

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 10 of Indian Constitution:
Maharashtra Power Development vs Dabhol Power Company And Ors. on 2 April, 2003 - Company Law Board
Mohammed Ajmal Mohammad vs The State Of Maharashtra on 21 February, 2011 - Bombay High Court
M/S Jasper Energy Private Limited vs Karnataka Power Transmission on 30 April, 2013 - Appellate Tribunal For Electricity
State Of West Bengal vs Brindaban Chandra Pramanik And on 24 July, 1956 - Calcutta High Court
M/S Wardha Power Company Limited vs Reliance Infrastructure Limited on 12 September, 2014 - Appellate Tribunal For Electricity
Maharashtra Power Development vs Dabhol Power C…

Article 9 Constitution of India

Article 9 in The Indian Constitution

Person voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of Article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of Article 6 or Article 8, if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State.

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 9 of Indian Constitution:
State Of West Bengal vs Brindaban Chandra Pramanik And on 24 July, 1956 - Calcutta High Court
Nas Aviation Services India Pvt. vs Vile Parle (East on 28 February, 2014 - Bombay High Court
Suresh Chandra Dam vs Union Of India (Uoi) And Ors. on 10 July, 1958 - Calcutta High Court
Ddit And Adit vs Balaji Shipping (Uk) Ltd. on 13 August, 2008 - Income Tax Appellate Tribunal - Mumbai
Communidade Of Cacoda vs Vishnu Bhikaro Sawant And Anr. on 22 November, 2007 - Bombay High Court
Mitsubishi Corporation India vs Assessee on 26 May, 2015 - Income Tax Appella…

Article 8 Constitution of India

Article 8 in The Indian Constitution

Rights of citizenship of certain persons of India origin residing outside India Notwithstanding anything in Article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grand parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), and who is ordinarily residing in any country outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the diplomatic or consular representative of India in the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made by him therefor to such diplomatic or consular representative, whether before or after the commencement of this Constitution, in the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 8 of Indian Constitution:
British Airways Plc. vs Dy. Cit on …

Article 7 Constitution of India

Article 7 in The Indian Constitution

Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan Notwithstanding anything in Articles 5 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947 , migrated from the territory of India to the territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India: Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan, has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes of clause (b) of Article 6 be deemed to have migrated to the territory of India after the nineteenth day of July, 1948

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Constitution of India i.e. Article 7 of Indian Constitution:
Firoz Meharuddin vs Sub-Divisional Officer And Ors. on 26 April, 1960 - Madhya Pradesh High Court
Mediterranean Shipping Co. S.A…

Article 6 Constitution of India

Article 6 in The Indian Constitution

Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan Notwithstanding anything in Article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if
(a) he or either of his parents or any of his grand parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted); and
(b)
(i) in the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948 , he has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or
(ii) in the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948 , he has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefor to such officer before the commencement of this Co…

Article 5 Constitution of India

Article 5 in The Indian Constitution

Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution At the commencement of this Constitution every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and
(a) who was born in the territory of India; or
(b) either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or
(c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years preceding such commencement, shall be a citizen of India

India's Important Case Laws and Landmark Judgments on Indian Constitution i.e. Article 5 Constitution of India :
Park View Enterprises vs State Government Of Tamil Nadu on 18 October, 1989 - Madras High Court
Park View Enterprises vs State Government Of Tamil Nadu on 18 October, 1989 - Madras High Court
M/S. Park View Enterprises vs State Of Tamil Nadu And Others on 18 October, 1998 - Madras High Court
Firoz Meharuddin vs Sub-Divisional Officer And Ors. on 26 April, 1960 - Madhya Pradesh High Court
Rashtriya Mukti Morcha vs Union O…